White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area landform origins, South Dakota, USA

Authors

A geomorphic history based on topographic map evidence

Abstract:

The White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area discussed here is located in southern South Dakota, USA. Although detailed topographic maps of the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area have been available for more than fifty years detailed map evidence has not previously been used to interpret the region’s geomorphic history. The interpretation provided here is based entirely on topographic map evidence. The White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area, which includes a Pine Ridge Escarpment region, is interpreted to have been eroded during immense southeast-oriented flood events, the first of which flowed on a topographic surface at least as high as the highest points in the present-day drainage divide area. Flood erosion of the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area ended when headward erosion of a deep and immense east-oriented White River valley captured the southeast-oriented flood flow.

Preface:

The following interpretation of detailed topographic map evidence is provided as evidence in the Missouri River drainage basin landform origins research project, which is compiling similar evidence for all major drainage divides contained within the Missouri River drainage basin and for all major drainage divides with and within certain adjacent drainage basins. The research project is interpreting evidence in the context of a previously unexplored geomorphology paradigm, which is briefly described in the introduction below. Project essays are listed on the sidebar category list under their appropriate Missouri River tributary drainage basin, Missouri River segment drainage basin (by state), and/or state in which the Missouri River drainage basin is located.

Introduction:

  • The purpose of this essay is to use topographic map interpretation methods to explore South Dakota White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area landform origins. Map interpretation methods can be used to unravel many geomorphic events leading up to formation of present-day drainage routes and development of other landform features. While each detailed topographic map feature provides detailed evidence to be explained, the solution must be consistent with explanations for adjacent area map evidence as well as solutions to big picture map evidence puzzles. I invite readers to improve upon my solutions or to propose alternate solutions that better explain evidence and are also consistent with adjacent map area and big picture evidence. Readers may do so either by making comments here or by writing and publishing their own essays and then by leaving a link to those essays in a comment here.
  • This essay is also exploring a paradigm in which erosional landforms are interpreted as evidence left by immense glacial melt water floods. Implied in that interpretation is the immense floods were derived from a thick North American ice sheet that created a deep “hole” in the North American continent and also melted fast. The previously unexplored paradigm being tested in this and similar essays is a thick North American ice sheet, comparable in thickness to the present day Antarctic ice sheet, occupied approximately the North American region usually recognized to have been glaciated and through its weight and erosive actions created a “deep” North American “hole”, through its weight and deep erosion (and perhaps deposition) along major south-oriented melt water flow routes caused significant crustal warping and tectonic change, through its action of melting fast produced immense floods that flowed across the continent, and through its action of melting fast systematically opened up space in the ice sheet created “hole” so headward erosion of newly developed north-oriented drainage systems captured immense south-oriented melt water floods and diverted immense melt water floods north into space the ice sheet had once occupied.
  • If this previously unexplored paradigm is correct the geographic region explored by this essay should contain evidence of immense floods that were captured by headward erosion of new valley systems so as to cause the floods to flow in a different direction. Ability of this previously unexplored paradigm to explain South Dakota White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area landform evidence will be regarded as evidence supporting the “thick ice sheet that melted fast” paradigm.

White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area general location map

Figure 1: White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area general location map (select and click on maps to enlarge). National Geographic Society map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 1 provides a general location map for the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area. The White River begins west of the figure 1 map area in northwest Nebraska and flows northeast to the South Dakota Badlands National Park area and then flows in a more easterly direction to join the southeast-oriented Missouri River. The Little White River is a major White River tributary and originates near Batesland, South Dakota and with several northeast and southeast-oriented jogs flows east and then turns north-northeast to flow to the east oriented White River. The Keya Paha River originates at the confluence of two unnamed (on figure 1) tributaries near Hidden Timber, South Dakota and flows southeast into northern Nebraska where it joins a southeast-oriented Niobrara River segment and eventually reaches the Missouri River. Ponca Creek, an unnamed Missouri River tributary on figure 1, originates near Colome, South Dakota and flows southeast into northern Nebraska, where it parallels the Niobrara River to independently reach the Missouri River. The White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area considered here is bounded by the Little White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide west of Mission, South Dakota and headwaters of southeast-oriented Ponca Creek near Colome, South Dakota. Detailed topographic map evidence shows the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide to be located near the Keya Paha River and the drainage divide area is largely a north-oriented slope from the lip of a narrow northern drainage area (to the southeast-oriented Keya Paha River) to the White River valley, which is two hundred or more meters lower in elevation. Other essays presented evidence for an immense southeast-oriented flood that was systematically captured by headward erosion of deep east and northeast-oriented valleys (e.g. see Bad River-White River drainage divide area essay, Cheyenne River-White River drainage divide area essay, and Cheyenne River-Bad River drainage divide area essay-essays can be found under appropriate river names on the sidebar category list). This essay presents evidence the southeast-oriented flood originally flowed on a topographic surface at least as high as the present day Keya Paha River headwaters area near Mission, South Dakota. What such evidence implies is flood erosion lowered the topographic surface that previously existed north of the Keya Paha River drainage basin by more than 200 hundred meters—and the region where erosion lowered the topographic surface by more than 200 hundred meters extends across most of western South Dakota, southwest North Dakota, and southeast Montana.

White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area detailed location map

Figure 2: White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area general location map. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 2 provides a detailed location map for the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area. The north-northeast oriented Little White River flows from Rosebud Indian Reservation past White River, South Dakota to the east-oriented White River near Westover, South Dakota. Antelope Creek flows north in the Rosebud Reservation to Mission Lake and then turns southeast to join northeast-oriented Rock Creek near Hidden Timber, South Dakota to form the southeast-oriented Keya Paha River. The Keya Paha River flows southeast from the Hidden Timber area past Keyapaha and Wewela, South Dakota to Brocksburg, Nebraska in the figure 2 southeast corner. Headwaters of southeast-oriented Ponca Creek are located near Colome, South Dakota, which is north of Wewela, South Dakota. Note the remarkable southeast-orientation of the Keya Paha River, Ponca Creek, some Missouri River segments, Willow Creek (flowing to the Keya Paha River near Millboro, South Dakota) and Minnechaduza Creek (flowing to the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebraska in the figure 2 southwest quadrant). Also note northwest-oriented Little White River tributaries in the Mission, South Dakota area and the northwest-orientation of headwaters of some White River tributaries, especially north of the Ponca Creek headwaters area. This northwest-southeast drainage alignment, while not as obvious as in some regions further to the north and west illustrated in essays for those drainage divide areas, is evidence southeast-oriented flood waters once flowed across the region. The fact major trunk stream valleys are southeast-oriented suggests this may have been a region where southeast-oriented flood flow was particularly intense and was able to erode deep valleys headward into what was then a high level topographic surface, now removed by flood erosion from the region north of the Keya Paha River valley rim. This essay begins by looking at the Little White River-Antelope Creek drainage divide near Mission, South Dakota and then proceed southeast-along the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide before concluding with detailed maps following the escarpment slope from the Keya Paha River valley north to the much lower White River valley.

Little White River-Antelope Creek drainage divide area near Mission, South Dakota

Figure 3: Little White River-Antelope Creek drainage divide area near Mission, South Dakota. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 3 illustrates the Little White River-Antelope Creek drainage divide area near Mission, South Dakota. The Little White River flows north-northeast across the figure 3 northwest corner. Antelope Creek flows north-northwest from figure 3 south center to near Mission where it turns to flow southeast (to the southeast-oriented Keya Paha River) in what appears to be a large southeast-oriented valley. The Antelope Creek valley upstream from Mission is narrower than the Antelope Creek valley downstream from Mission. Not seen in figure 3 are Antelope Creek headwaters, which begin as southeast-oriented and then turn to become north-northwest oriented. Antelope Creek headwaters begin at an elevation in excess of 850 meters. The elevation at Mission is slightly below 800 meters and the elevation where the Little White River joins the White River (north of figure 3) is approximately 550 meters. In other words, the large southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley has been eroded into what is today a major north-facing escarpment slope (this is near the east end of the Pine Ridge Escarpment, the top of which in this area is almost 300 meters higher than the base). Note northwest-oriented streams flowing from west of the Antelope Creek elbow of capture to the Little White River. Also note the large through valley connecting one of those Little White River tributaries (northwest-oriented Oak Creek) with the southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley. While it may be difficult to imagine a flood capable of eroding a 200-300 meter deep valley westward through this region, that is exactly what happened. The southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley was eroded headward by southeast-oriented flood waters coming from the northwest (where today there is only the White River valley with no evidence remaining of an equally high south-facing escarpment). The southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley when it eroded northwest was probably 50 meters or more deep and the north-northwest-oriented Antelope Creek valley was eroded by flood waters on the northwest end of a beheaded flood flow route that reversed flow direction to flow to newly eroded and deeper southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley. Erosion of the northwest-oriented Antelope Creek valley was aided by capture of yet to be beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow routes further to the south. Shortly after these events a much deeper and much larger east-oriented White River valley eroded west. The Little White River valley eroded headward from the actively eroding White River valley head and captured all southeast-oriented flood flow across the figure 3 map region, and in the process reversed flood flow on the northwest ends of southeast-oriented flood flow routes that had been eroding the southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley and created northwest-oriented Little White River tributaries and also created the present day Little White River-Antelope Creek drainage divide.

Antelope Creek-Oak Creek drainage divide area near Okreek, South Dakota

Figure 4: Antelope Creek-Oak Creek drainage divide area near Okreek, South Dakota. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 4 illustrates the southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley east of the figure 3 map area and there is some overlap with figure 3. East-northeast oriented Oak Creek headwaters flow near Okreek, South Dakota in the figure 4 north center. Further east and north Oak Creek jogs northeast and northwest before flowing north down the escarpment slope to the east-oriented White River. Note the southeast-oriented Antelope Creek tributary flowing from a small southeast-oriented escarpment-surrounded basin. The escarpment-surrounded basin is an abandoned headcut that was being eroded northwest by southeast-oriented flood flow prior to headward erosion of the large and deep east-oriented White River valley (northwest of that headcut are headwaters of north-oriented Thunder Creek, which eroded south from the actively eroding White River valley to behead the southeast-oriented flood flow route eroding the southeast-oriented headcut (see figure 3). That small southeast-oriented headcut is a small-scale example of what was happening with the much larger headcut that was eroding the southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley to the northwest. And the Antelope Creek headcut, while eroding a 50-meter or more deep valley headward into what was then the prevailing topographic surface, was a smaller-scale headcut compared to the still larger and deeper headcut that was eroding the 200-300 meter deep White River valley westward into what was then the prevailing topographic surface just to the north. Today the Pine Ridge Escarpment is the south wall of the valley that giant east-oriented White River valley headcut eroded. Southeast-oriented flood water removed almost all evidence of the north valley wall and today the Pine Ridge Escarpment is often view as a step from High Plains (to the south) to the lower Missouri Plateau (to the north), however when the southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley was eroded the topographic surface represented today by the High Plains continued to the north and an immense flood was moving southeast across that now nonexistent topographic surface.

Keya Paha River-White Horse Creek drainage divide area

Figure 5: Keya Paha River-White Horse Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 5 illustrates the region southeast of the figure 4 map area and includes overlap areas for reference. Northeast-oriented Rock Creek flows to the southeast-oriented Antelope Creek valley near Hidden Timber, South Dakota and the combined flow southeast from that point is the Keya Paha River. Southwest of figure 5 (not seen in maps presented here) almost all Rock Creek tributaries are southeast-oriented and Rock Creek headwaters are also southeast-oriented. North-oriented drainage in the figure 5 north center is headwaters of northeast and northwest-oriented White Horse Creek, which flows to north-oriented Oak Creek described in the figure 4 discussion. Hills between the Keya Paha River valley and the north-oriented White Horse Creek headwaters have elevations exceeding 800 meters  and the Keya Paha River valley floor in the figure 5 south center has an elevation of approximately 700 meters, indicating the headcut that eroded the southeast-oriented Keya Paha River valley was eroding a valley at least 100-meters deep into what was then the prevailing topographic surface. Note the through valley linking the south-oriented Crazy Hole Creek (a Keya Paha River tributary in the figure 5 south center) with the north-oriented White Horse Creek headwaters. The Crazy Hole Creek through valley, like other through valleys visible in figure 5, was eroded by water flowing from the north to the Keya Paha valley and is evidence the region north of the figure 5 region was at one time higher in elevation than the through valley elevation. Southeast-oriented Willow Creek (located in the figure 5 southeast quadrant) is a Keya Paha River tributary and a shallower through valley links Willow Creek headwaters with the north-oriented White Horse Creek drainage basin. Northwest-oriented White Horse Creek tributaries flow from that through valley and those tributary valleys were eroded by reversals of flood flow on the northwest ends of beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow routes that had been eroding the Willow Creek valley northwest. Those flood flow routes were beheaded when the north-oriented Oak Creek-White Horse Creek valley eroded south from what was then the deep and actively eroding east-oriented White River valley.

Willow Creek-Dog Ear Creek drainage divide area

Figure 6: Willow Creek-Dog Ear Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 6 illustrates the region southeast of the figure 5 map area and provides significant overlap areas. Willow Creek flows southeast from the figure 6 center to the figure southeast corner. The Keya Paha River flows southeast across the figure 6 southwest quadrant. Northeast-oriented headwaters of north-oriented Dog Ear Creek are located in the figure 6 northeast corner, while north-oriented headwaters of north-oriented Cottonwood Creek are in the figure 6 north center, and north-oriented headwaters of north-oriented White Horse Creek-Oak Creek are in the northwest corner. Note the drainage divide between southeast-oriented Willow Creek, which flows to the southeast-oriented Keya Paha River, and Dog Ear Creek, which flows north to the east-oriented White River. Areas of the drainage divide have been deeply eroded by southeast-oriented flood waters that were moving to the southeast-oriented Willow Creek valley and which were captured and diverted northeast to northeast-oriented Dog Ear Creek. The maze of through valleys created by this and similar captures created the landscape seen today, including the isolated erosional residuals present in the figure 6 map area. In other words, headward erosion of what are today north-oriented White River tributary valleys was capturing immense quantities of southeast-oriented flood water and diverting that water north into the what was then the actively eroding White River valley and such captures eroded the present day Pine Ridge Escarpment slope. Elevations of hill tops and of the Keya Paha River valley are becoming lower as the maps proceed southeast, although the Keya Paha River valley floor is still 60 to 80 meters lower than the tops of hills along the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide to the north. This depth indicates the southeast-oriented Keya Paha River valley in the figure 6 map area was eroded headward into a topographic surface which at that time was at least 60-80 meters higher than the present day Keya Paha River valley floor and at that time the deep east-oriented White River valley to the north did not exist.

Keya Paha River valley area northwest of Wewela, South Dakota

Figure 7: Keya Paha River valley area northwest of Wewela, South Dakota. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 7 illustrates the region southeast of the figure 6 map area with the figure 6 southeast corner overlapping the figure 7 northwest corner. The White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide is not present on figure 7, but is located north of the figure 7 north edge. Figures 8, 9, 10 illustrate the Pine Ridge Escarpment slope from the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide located north of figure 7 to the White River valley, which is approximately 200-250 meters lower in elevation. The Keya Paha River-Ponca Creek drainage divide crosses the figure 7 northeast corner. The Keya Paha River flows southeast from the figure 7 west center to the figure 7 southeast quadrant. Turtle Butte, northwest of Wewela, South Dakota, stands approximately 100-meters above the Keya Paha River valley floor. Willow Creek is in this figure flowing south-southeast from the figure 7 northwest corner to join the Keya Paha River. Dog Ear Lake drains southeast to a southwest-oriented Keya Paha River tributary. A through valley connects that southwest-oriented Keya Paha River tributary with northeast-oriented headwaters of east and southeast-oriented Ponca Creek. That through valley is evidence southeast-oriented flood water flowing in the Keya Paha River valley once split just west of Turtle Butte, with some of the water going northeast to the Ponca Creek valley and some of the water continuing southeast along the Keya Paha River valley route. This link between two parallel southeast-oriented channels suggests the channels were initially components of an immense southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex that was beheaded by headward erosion of the deep White River valley to the north and northwest. The southeast-oriented valley northwest of Dog Ear Lake, which roughly lines up with the southeast-oriented Willow Creek valley in figure 6, could be another component of that southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex. Note the south-oriented Keya Paha River tributary east of Turtle Butte and the northwest-oriented tributary to the southwest-oriented Keya Paha River tributary near Rahn Dam. These tributaries suggest flood water also flowed southeast from the Rahn Dam area to the Keya Paha River in the Wewela area.

Ponca Creek headwaters near Colome, South Dakota

Figure 8: Ponca Creek headwaters near Colome, South Dakota. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 8 illustrates the region north of the figure 7 map area and there is some overlap. Dog Ear Creek flows northeast and north in the northwest quadrant. Dog Ear Lake in the southwest quadrant as seen in figure 7 drains to the southeast-oriented Keya Paha River. Headwaters of the north-oriented West Branch of north-oriented Bull Creek are located in the figure 8 northeast quadrant. Ponca Creek flows east (and east of figure 8 turns southeast) in the figure 8 southeast quadrant. Note how Ponca Creek headwaters are northeast-oriented, which is evidence the Ponca Creek valley was capturing southeast-oriented flood flow from the southeast-oriented Willow Creek and Key Paha River valleys seen in previous figures. Note also how West Branch Bull Creek headwaters are northeast-oriented, which is evidence the north-oriented Bull Creek valley was capturing southeast-oriented flood flow that had been eroding the Ponca Creek valley headward. Headward erosion of the Dog Ear Creek valley subsequently captured remaining southeast flood flow to the Ponca Creek valley, although for a time the Ponca Creek valley may have continued to receive flood flow from the southeast-oriented Willow Creek and Keya Paha River valleys to the southwest. The top of Dog Ear Butte, which is approximately located on the present day White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide is slightly over 750 meters in elevation, which suggests the prevailing topographic surface into which the Keya Paha River valley and the much deeper White River valley to the north were eroded was at least high as a modern-day topographic surface 750 meters high would be. The present day Keya Paha River valley floor south of Dog Ear Butte (see figure 7) has an approximate elevation of 650 meters. The White River valley floor near where Dog Ear Creek enters the valley is approximately 475 meters in elevation and the prevailing elevation of the upland surface surrounding the present day narrow “inner” White River valley is approximately 550 meters.

Dog Ear Creek and Thunder Creek valleys near Winner, South Dakota

Figure 9: Dog Ear Creek and Thunder Creek valleys near Winner, South Dakota. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 9 illustrates the region north of the figure 8 map area and there is a thin overlap strip. Dog Ear Creek flows north and north-northwest just west of Winner, South Dakota. Hollow Creek is the north-northeast oriented Dog Ear Creek tributary flowing from the figure 9 southwest quadrant. Thunder Creek flows north in a series of northeast and northwest jogs to the east of Winner. North Moccasin Creek drains the figure 9 northeast corner. Southeast-oriented drainage south of Rattlesnake Butte along the figure 9 east edge flows to north-oriented West Branch Bull Creek and north-oriented Bull Creek. The southeast-oriented drainage is additional evidence (in addition to figure 8 evidence) the north-oriented Bull Creek valley was capturing significant amounts of southeast-oriented flood flow, which was helping to erode the north-oriented Bull Creek valley and drainage basin. The through valley north of Rattlesnake Butte linking north-oriented North Moccasin Creek headwaters with the unseen West Branch Bull Creek drainage just east of figure 9 is evidence significant amounts of flood waters once flowed east and northeast along that route prior to headward erosion of the North Moccasin Creek valley, which captured the flood flow and diverted it north. Subsequently the north-oriented Thunder Creek valley eroded headward and beheaded the southeast-oriented flood flow routes to the West Branch Bull Creek. Shortly thereafter the north-northwest oriented Dog Ear Creek valley eroded headward and captured the southeast-oriented flood flow to Thunder Creek, and the progression continues to the west. The erosional remnants such as Bradleyon Butte and Rattlesnake Butte provide evidence of the topographic surface that existed prior to the flood erosion and document how much material flood erosion  removed from the figure 9 map area. Also the erosional remnants provide evidence of a southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex that was captured by headward erosion of north-oriented White River valley tributaries and diverted to become a series of north-and northwest-oriented flood flow channels.

Dog Ear Creek and Thunder Creek at the White River valley

Figure 10: Dog Ear Creek and Thunder Creek at the White River valley. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 10 illustrates the region north and slightly northwest of figure 9 and includes a thin overlap strip. The east-oriented White River flows along the figure 10 north edge. North-oriented Dog Ear Creek flows to the White River just east of the north-south highway. Further east, north-northwest oriented Thunder Creek flows to join the White River in the figure 10 north center. Note how the upland surface into which the present day narrow White River valley, the north-oriented Dog Ear Creek valley, and the north-northwest oriented Thunder Creek valley are eroded is streamlined in a northwest-southeast direction. That northwest-southeast oriented streamlining is evidence the Thunder Creek valley and subsequently the Dog Ear Creek valley were eroded headward across southeast-oriented flood flow that had not yet been beheaded by headward erosion of the what is today the narrow White River valley seen along the figure 10 north edge. That narrow White River valley was probably eroded as a late stage in the erosion of what must have been a much larger and deeper east-oriented valley along the present day White River valley alignment. The figure 10 area upland surface has elevations in the 550-575 range  The south wall of that much larger and deeper White River valley is today the north-facing Pine Ridge Escarpment. As previously noted elevations near the headwaters of Dog Ear Creek along the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide reach 750 meters. The corresponding north valley wall has been completely removed. In other words, the southeast-oriented flood not only eroded an immense east-oriented valley headward to create the present day Pine Ridge Escarpment as its south valley wall, but it also removed almost 200 meters of material from most of the Missouri Plateau surface north of the Pine Ridge Escarpment. Some of that removed material may have been ice, but considerable amounts of that material probably were sediments. Evidence here does not explain why an immense east-oriented valley eroded west here or why so much material was stripped from the Missouri Plateau surface. However, if the flood waters were derived from a rapidly melting thick North American ice sheet the flood waters may have been in the process of eroding a deep valley around the rapidly melting ice sheet’s southeast margin (which may have been the beginning of Missouri River valley headward erosion into the region).

Additional information and sources of maps studied

This essay has provided only a sample of the detailed topographic map evidence supporting the flood erosion interpretation. Many additional illustrations could be provided. Readers are encouraged to look at mosaics of detailed topographic maps to see the abundance of available data. Maps used in this study were created and published by the United States Geologic Survey and can be obtained directly from the United States Geological Survey and/or from dealers offering United States Geological Survey maps. Hard copy maps can also be observed at United States Geological Survey map depositories which are located throughout the United States and elsewhere. Illustrations used here were created using National Geographic Society TOPO software and digital map data. TOPO software and map data can be obtained from the National Geographic Society and/or dealers offering National Geographic Society digital map data.

1 Comment

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  1. William A. Decker

    How many Natural Stone bridges exist in the White River-Keya Paha River drainage divide area that were were cut by the eroding waters? If anyone is curious I can give you directions to the location in south central South Dakota. deckerwa@yahoo.com

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