Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area (northeast end) landform origins, eastern Montana, USA

· Montana, Redwater River, Yellowstone River
Authors

A geomorphic history based on topographic map evidence

Abstract:

The Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area is located in eastern Montana, USA and is actually the drainage divide area between the Redwater River, which is a northeast and north-oriented Missouri River tributary, and the northeast oriented Yellowstone River. Although detailed topographic maps of the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area have been available for more than fifty years detailed map evidence has not previously been used to interpret the region’s geomorphic history. The interpretation provided here is based entirely on topographic map evidence. The Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area is interpreted to have been eroded during immense southeast-oriented flood events, the first of which flowed on a topographic surface at least as high as the highest points in the present-day drainage divide area. Flood erosion across the drainage divide ended when headward erosion of the deep northeast and north-oriented Redwater River valley captured all southeast-oriented flood flow.

Preface:

The following interpretation of detailed topographic map evidence is provided as evidence in the Missouri River drainage basin landform origins research project, which is compiling similar evidence for all major drainage divides contained within the Missouri River drainage basin and for all major drainage divides with and within certain adjacent drainage basins. The research project is interpreting evidence in the context of a previously unexplored geomorphology paradigm, which is briefly described in the introduction below. Project essays are listed on the sidebar category list under their appropriate Missouri River tributary drainage basin, Missouri River segment drainage basin (by state), and/or state in which the Missouri River drainage basin is located.

Introduction:

  • The purpose of this essay is to use topographic map interpretation methods to explore Montana Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area landform origins. Map interpretation methods can be used to unravel many geomorphic events leading up to formation of present-day drainage routes and development of other landform features. While each detailed topographic map feature provides detailed evidence to be explained, the solution must be consistent with explanations for adjacent area map evidence as well as solutions to big picture map evidence puzzles. I invite readers to improve upon my solutions or to propose alternate solutions that better explain evidence and are also consistent with adjacent map area and big picture evidence. Readers may do so either by making comments here or by writing and publishing their own essays and then by leaving a link to those essays in a comment here.
  • This essay is also exploring a paradigm in which erosional landforms are interpreted as evidence left by immense glacial melt water floods. Implied in that interpretation is the immense floods were derived from a thick North American ice sheet that created a deep “hole” in the North American continent and also melted fast. The previously unexplored paradigm being tested in this and similar essays is a thick North American ice sheet, comparable in thickness to the present day Antarctic ice sheet, occupied approximately the North American region usually recognized to have been glaciated and through its weight and erosive actions created a “deep” North American “hole”, through its weight and deep erosion (and perhaps deposition) along major south-oriented melt water flow routes caused significant crustal warping and tectonic change, through its action of melting fast produced immense floods that flowed across the continent, and through its action of melting fast systematically opened up space in the ice sheet created “hole” so headward erosion of newly developed north-oriented drainage systems captured immense south-oriented melt water floods and diverted immense melt water floods north into space the ice sheet had once occupied.
  • If this previously unexplored paradigm is correct the geographic region explored by this essay should contain evidence of immense floods that were captured by headward erosion of new valley systems so as to cause the floods to flow in a different direction. Ability of this previously unexplored paradigm to explain Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area landform evidence will be regarded as evidence supporting the “thick ice sheet that melted fast” paradigm.

Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area location map

Figure 1: Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area location map (select and click on maps to enlarge). National Geographic Society map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 1 provides a Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area location map. The state west of the north-south green border line is Montana. East of the north-south purple border is North Dakota. The Yellowstone River flows from the figure 1 southwest corner to join the east-oriented Missouri River southwest of Williston, North Dakota. Fort Peck Lake is a reservoir flooding the Missouri River valley and today downstream from Fort Peck Dam the Missouri River flows roughly in an east direction across the figure 1 top half. While outside the region considered by this essay in northeast Montana a large valley extends from the Missouri River valley northeast through Medicine Lake and is sometimes considered to be a former Missouri River channel, and it is possible the Redwater River valley was eroded at a time when the Missouri River flowed northeast in that now abandoned northeast oriented valley. The northwest, northeast, and north-oriented Redwater River is located between Fort Peck Lake and the Yellowstone River and joins the Missouri River near Poplar, Montana. Figure 1 illustrates numerous southeast and northwest-oriented Yellowstone River and Redwater River tributaries. This southeast and northwest-orientation of tributary valleys is evidence the northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley eroded southwest across multiple southeast-oriented flood flow routes, such as might be found in a large-scale flood formed anastomosing channel complex, and subsequently the Redwater River valley eroded south and southwest across the same anastomosing channel complex. Northwest-oriented tributary valleys were eroded by reversed flood flow on northwest ends of  beheaded flood flow channels. Because channels were anastomosing (meaning they were interconnected) reversed flood flow on beheaded flood flow channels often captured yet to be beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow from flood flow channels further to the southwest. Such captures of yet to be beheaded flood flow often helped erode significant northwest-oriented tributary valleys. Based on the northwest-southeast orientation of tributary streams landform evidence illustrated here is interpreted in the context of an immense southeast-oriented flood flowing across the entire figure 1 map area and which was systematically captured and diverted further and further to the northeast by headward erosion of deep valleys eroded into a topographic surface at least as high as the figure 1 region highest elevations today. In the figure 1 map region headward erosion of the Yellowstone River valley captured southeast-oriented flood flow and diverted the flood waters northeast, and subsequently headward erosion of the north- and northeast-oriented Redwater River captured the same southeast-oriented flood flow and diverted the flood waters still further to the northeast. Detailed maps below provide evidence supporting this interpretation. The Yellowstone River-Little Missouri River drainage divide area and in the Yellowstone River-Beaver Creek drainage area essays describe regions located immediately east of the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area described here and can be found under Little Missouri River on the sidebar category list. Other Redwater River drainage divide area essays can be under Redwater River on the sidebar category list. .

Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area detailed location map

Figure 2: Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area detailed location map. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 2 illustrates a somewhat more detailed map of the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area discussed here. McCone, Richland, Dawson, and Wibaux Counties are located in Montana. The Montana-North Dakota border is the north-south border line near the figure 2 east edge. The Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area discussed here is located primarily in northwest Dawson County and southwest Richland County. The Yellowstone River flows northeast through Glendive and Sidney, Montana to join the Missouri River in the figure 2 northeast corner. The Redwater River flows northeast from the figure 2 southwest corner area through Watkins, Brockway, and Circle, Montana  and then roughly follows the McCone-Richland County line to the figure 2 north edge. Figure 2 shows many more southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributaries and many more northwest-oriented Redwater River tributaries than figure 1. Also, while outside the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area there are numerous southeast-oriented Redwater River tributaries and nearly all Yellowstone River tributaries from the east are northwest-oriented. This northwest-southeast drainage alignment is evidence the northeast oriented Yellowstone River valley eroded southwest across an immense southeast-oriented flood to capture the flood waters and to divert the flood waters northeast. Further, the drainage alignment is evidence the northeast and north-oriented Redwater River valley eroded south and southwest across the same immense southeast-oriented flood to capture flood waters moving to the newly eroded Yellowstone River valley and to divert the flood waters still further to the northeast and north. The southeast-oriented tributary valleys were eroded by southeast-oriented flood flow moving into the newly eroded and deep Yellowstone and Redwater River valleys. The northwest-oriented tributary valleys were eroded by reversed flood flow on the northwest ends of beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow routes. Because flood waters move in and erode anastomosing (or interconnected) channels reversed flood flow on a beheaded flood flow route could capture flood flow from yet to be beheaded flood flow routes. Such captures of yet to be beheaded flood flow would enable the reversed flood flow to erode much deeper and larger northwest-oriented valleys than might otherwise be possible.

Yellowstone River tributaries and valley at Sidney, Montana

Figure 3: Yellowstone River tributaries and valley Sidney, Montana. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 3 illustrates southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributaries west of Sidney, Montana, northwest-oriented Yellowstone River tributaries east of Sidney, and the northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley from Crane, Montana (along the figure 3 south edge) to Fairview, which straddles the Montana-North Dakota border. Figure 3 also illustrates the size of the northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley. As previously mentioned the southeast-oriented and northwest-oriented tributaries provide evidence the Yellowstone River valley eroded headward across an immense southeast-oriented flood to capture the flood waters and to divert the flood waters northeast. As the deep Yellowstone River valley eroded southwest it beheaded numerous southeast-oriented flood flow routes. Flood waters on the northwest ends of those beheaded flood flow routes reversed flow direction and flowed northwest to newly eroded and deeper northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley. The reversed flood waters were responsible for eroding the northwest-oriented Yellowstone River tributary valleys. Because flood waters were flowing in anastomosing (or interconnected) channels, reversed flood flow on beheaded flood flow channels often was able to capture significant amounts of flood flow from yet to be beheaded flood flow channels further to the southwest. Evidence for such captures southeast of this figure 3 map area is illustrated in Yellowstone River-Little Missouri River drainage divide essay. At the same time as reversed flood flow was eroding the deep Yellowstone River valley southeast wall, southeast-oriented flood flow from the northwest was eroding the newly eroded and deep Yellowstone River valley northwest wall. The southeast-oriented flood flow eroded a southeast-oriented erosion surface and subsequently eroded southeast-oriented tributary valleys into that southeast-oriented erosion surface. Southeast-oriented flood flow moving into the Yellowstone River valley eroded anastomosing channels and evidence of those anastomosing channels exists today. Note for example how southeast-oriented Fox Creek (flowing southeast from Lambert, Montana located along the figure 3 west edge) turns northeast to join the southeast-oriented North Fork before flowing to the Yellowstone River southwest of Sidney. Note also the through valley east of Lambert linking the Fox Creek valley with an east-southeast oriented North Fork tributary valley.

Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide north of Enid, Montana area

Figure 4: Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide north of Enid, Montana area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 4 illustrates the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area north of Enid, Montana and includes some overlap with figure 3 (Lambert, Montana is located in the figure 4 southeast corner). Fox Creek flows north to Enid and then east to Lambert and southeast to the Yellowstone River as seen in figure 3. The East Fork Fox Creek flows southeast north of Fox Lake and east of figure 3 turns south to join Fox Creek. Also, east of figure 4 the southeast-oriented East Fork Fox Creek valley is linked by a through valley (seen in figure 3 north of the highway) with the southeast-oriented North Fork Fox Creek. This through valley provides further evidence of the anastomosing channel complex that once existed. West of Enid is a large well-defined through valley linking the east and southeast-oriented Fox Creek valley with the northwest-oriented Redwater Creek valley, which flows to a northwest-oriented segment of the north-oriented Redwater River. The through valley provides evidence that large amounts of southeast-oriented flood water once crossed the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide at this location and eroded a deep east-oriented valley. The present day Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide at this location was created when headward erosion of the deep Redwater River valley northwest of the figure 4 map area beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow moving through the present day west to east oriented through valley causing a reversal of flood waters on the northwest end of the beheaded flood flow route. The reversed flood flow aided by flood flow from yet to be beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow routes further to the southeast eroded the northwest-oriented Redwater Creek valley. Note the nature of the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide north of the west to east oriented through valley. Southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributaries are linked by higher level through valleys with northwest-oriented Redwater River tributaries, providing evidence flood water once flowed across the entire divide area. Headward erosion of the deep Redwater River valley to the northwest of figure 4 progressively beheaded the southeast-oriented flood flow routes (from the northeast to the southwest) and reversed flood flow to create the present day drainage divide and erode northwest-oriented tributary valleys.

Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide south of Enid, Montana area

Figure 5: Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide south of Enid, Montana area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 5 illustrates the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area south of Enid. The southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributary flowing to the figure 5 southeast corner is the North Fork Burns Creek. Note how a through valley southwest of Fox Lake links the southeast-oriented North Fork Burns Creek valley with the southeast-oriented Fox Creek valley and provides further evidence of the southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex that once existed on the southeast-oriented erosion surface leading down into the deep northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley. The northwest-oriented stream flowing to Kuester Lake in the figure 5 northwest quadrant is a Redwater Creek tributary and note how it makes a U-turn downstream from Kuester Lake and then flows northeast in the figure 3 northwest corner to join Redwater Creek (north of the figure 5 map area). That stream provides evidence reversed flood flow on what is today the northwest-oriented Redwater Creek valley alignment captured yet to be beheaded flood flow on southeast-oriented flood flow routes further to the southwest. The northeast-oriented valley segment of that Kuester Lake outlet stream is evidence southeast-oriented flood flow on the northwest-oriented Kuester Lake inlet alignment was captured by reversed flood flow on the Redwater Creek alignment. That capture beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow on the Kuester Lake inlet alignment, causing a reversal of flood flow that eroded the northwest-oriented Kuester Lake inlet valley. The Kuester Lake inlet reversal of flood flow captured yet to be beheaded flood flow moving on what is today the South Fork Lisk Creek alignment, although some evidence for that capture has since been removed. The southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributary in the figure 5 south center is the headwaters of Burns Creek, which is seen better in figure 6 below. Southwest of the figure 5 map area the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide is an asymmetric drainage divide similar to the divide in the figure 5 southwest corner, with steeper northwest-oriented slopes leading to the Redwater River valley and gentler southeast-oriented slopes leading to the Yellowstone River valley.

Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide in North Fork Thirteenmile Creek area

Figure 6: Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide in North Fork Thirteenmile Creek area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 6 illustrates the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area southwest of the figure 5 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 5. Southeast-oriented Burns Creek flows from the its drainage divide with the northwest-oriented South Fork Lisk Creek to the figure 6 east center edge. Note the shallow through valley linking the southeast-oriented Burns Creek valley with the northwest-oriented South Fork Lisk Creek valley. The through valley is evidence water once flowed across the present day drainage divide. Further to the southwest (of Burns Creek) is southeast-oriented North Fork Thirteenmile Creek, which is linked by a shallow through valley with northwest-oriented East Fork of Pasture Creek. That through valley is also evidence water once flowed across the present day drainage divide. Note how east-southeast oriented Burns Creek tributary valleys are linked by shallow through valleys with the southeast-oriented North Fork Thirteenmile Creek valley. Those shallow through valley are further evidence of the southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex that once existed on the flood eroded southeast-oriented erosion surface leading into the deep northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley. Today the area northwest of the asymmetric Redwater River-Yellowstone is the deep Redwater River valley, which means the Redwater River valley did not exist when flood waters flowed southeast across the drainage divide. The Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide was created as a large and deep Redwater River valley headcut eroded south and southwest to capture southeast-oriented flood flow that was moving to the newly eroded and deep Yellowstone River valley. The northwest-oriented slope into the Redwater River valley was eroded by reversed flood flow in beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow channels and by yet to be beheaded flood flow from flood flow channels south and southwest of the actively eroding Redwater River valley headcut face.

Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide in Thirteenmile Creek area

Figure 7: Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide in Thirteenmile Creek area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 7 illustrates the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area in the Thirteenmile Creek area and is located southwest of the figure 6 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 6. Southeast-oriented North Fork Thirteenmile Creek is located in the figure 7 northeast corner. Thirteenmile Creek flows southeast from the figure 7 center to the figure 7 southeast corner. The South Fork Thirteenmile Creek flows southeast and makes some significant jogs before joining Thirteenmile Creek near the figure 7 southeast corner. The jogs are interesting because a through valley links the upstream southeast-oriented valley segment much more directly with the southeast-oriented Thirteenmile Creek valley. The jogs and the more direct dry through valley provide still more evidence of the anastomosing channel complex that once existed on the southeast-oriented erosion surface leading into the deep northeast oriented Yellowstone River valley. Note also shallow through valleys eroded into the asymmetric Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide and linking northwest-oriented Redwater River tributary valleys with southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributary valleys. Again these shallow through valleys provide evidence water once flowed southeast across the present day drainage divide. Today the area northwest of the drainage divide is the deep northeast and north oriented Redwater River valley, which means the Redwater River valley did not exist when flood water flowed southeast into the newly eroded and deep Yellowstone River valley. The deep and large north and northeast-oriented Redwater River was eroded south and southwest to capture the southeast oriented flood flow that was moving to the newly eroded and deep Yellowstone River valley and to divert the flood waters further to the northeast.

Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide in Deer Creek area

Figure 8: Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide in Deer Creek area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 8 illustrates the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area in the Deer Creek area located southwest of the figure 7 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 7. Southeast-oriented Lower Sevenmile Creek is located in the figure 8 northeast corner. To the southwest are southeast-oriented North Fork Deer Creek, southeast-oriented Middle Fork Deer Creek, and southeast-oriented South Fork Deer Creek. In the figure 8 south center is southeast-oriented Spring Creek. Orientations of tributaries to these southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributaries suggest again these Yellowstone River tributary valleys were eroded as components of a southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex flowing down the southeast-oriented erosion surface leading into the newly eroded and northeast oriented Yellowstone River valley. The asymmetric Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide is still present and again provides evidence the deep north and northeast oriented Redwater River valley did not exist at the time flood waters flowed southeast into the newly eroded northeast oriented Yellowstone River valley. The size of both the large northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley and the northeast- and north-oriented Redwater River valley provide evidence of the immense quantities of flood waters involved and vast amounts of erosion those flood waters accomplished. The sources of the flood waters cannot be determined from evidence presented here. However, the Missouri River drainage basin landform origins research project essays as a group can be used to trace flood waters headward to the location of a North American ice sheet. Rapid melting of a thick North American ice sheet located in a deep “hole” in approximately the North American location usually recognized to have been glaciated would be a logical flood water source. Further, rapid melting of such an ice sheet would explain why deep valleys, such as the deep Yellowstone River valley and the deep Redwater River valley eroded south and southwest to capture immense southeast-oriented floods and to divert the flood waters further and further to the northeast and north.

Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide southeast of Circle, Montana

Figure 9: Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide southeast of Circle, Montana. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 9 illustrates the region west of the figure 8 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 8. The Redwater River flows northeast through Circle, Montana in the figure 9 northwest corner. The asymmetric Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide extends from the figure 9 south edge center to the figure 9 northeast corner. Figure 9 illustrates the magnitude and depth of the large and deep northeast-oriented Redwater River valley. This Redwater River valley did not exist when flood waters flowed southeast across the present-day Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide to erode what are today southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributary valleys as channels in what was then a southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex leading into the newly eroded northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley. Drainage divides such as this Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide can be used to reconstruct regional drainage histories and the sequence in which valleys were eroded. East of the Yellowstone River valley is the north-oriented Little Missouri River valley, which had to be eroded before headward erosion of the deep northeast-oriented Yellowstone River valley. Valleys west of the Redwater River valley were eroded in sequence from east to west as flood waters were captured and diverted further and further to the northeast and north. The magnitude of erosion flood waters accomplished is difficult to measure because as seen in figure 9 and in other maps illustrated here flood waters flowed across what are today the highest points in the Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area. No erosional remnants are preserved of whatever pre-flood landscape once existed in this region.

Yellowstone River tributaries northwest of Glendive, Montana

Figure 10: Yellowstone River tributaries northwest of Glendive, Montana. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 10 illustrates southeast-oriented Yellowstone River tributary valleys northwest of Glendive, Montana and includes overlap areas with figures 8 and 9 above. The asymmetric Redwater River-Yellowstone River drainage divide is located in the figure 10 northwest corner and the northeast oriented Yellowstone River at Glendive is located in the figure 10 southeast corner. Figure 10 evidence illustrates how the southeast-oriented erosion surface leading to the northeast oriented Yellowstone River was eroded by a southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex that carried flood waters from northwest of the present day deep northeast and north-oriented Redwater River valley to what was then the newly eroded northeast oriented Yellowstone River valley. For example, look at Threemile Table located in the figure 10 east center. To the northeast is  the southeast-oriented Lower Sevenmile Creek valley and to the southwest is the southeast-oriented Deer Creek valley. Southeast-oriented Deer Creek originates on Threemile Table and flows to the Yellowstone River, while east-oriented Dry Creek, which originates on Threemile Table northwest of Threemile Creek, flows to Sevenmile Creek and then southeast to the Yellowstone River. Note how southeast-oriented Deer Creek tributaries are linked by shallow through valleys northwest of Threemile Table to southeast-oriented Lower Sevenmile Creek headwaters. Similar evidence throughout the figure 10 map area makes a case for the existence of a southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex on the southeast-oriented erosion surface leading into the Yellowstone River valley. As previously mentioned those anastomosing channels were carved into the erosion surface before the existence of a deep Redwater River valley to the northwest. Southeast-oriented flood flow in the figure 10 map area to the northeast oriented Yellowstone River valley ended when the deep northeast and north-oriented Redwater River valley eroded southwest to capture the flood flow.

Additional information and sources of maps studied

This essay has provided only a sample of the detailed topographic map evidence supporting the flood erosion interpretation. Many additional illustrations could be provided. Readers are encouraged to look at mosaics of detailed topographic maps to see the abundance of available data. Maps used in this study were created and published by the United States Geologic Survey and can be obtained directly from the United States Geological Survey and/or from dealers offering United States Geological Survey maps. Hard copy maps can also be observed at United States Geological Survey map depositories which are located throughout the United States and elsewhere. Illustrations used here were created using National Geographic Society TOPO software and digital map data. TOPO software and map data can be obtained from the National Geographic Society and/or dealers offering National Geographic Society digital map data.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: