North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area landform origins in Musselshell County, Montana, USA

· Montana, Musselshell River
Authors

A geomorphic history based on topographic map evidence

Abstract:

The North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area discussed here is located in Musselshell County, Montana, USA. Although detailed topographic maps of the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area have been available for more than fifty years detailed map evidence has not previously been used to interpret the region’s geomorphic history. The interpretation provided here is based entirely on topographic map evidence. The North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area is interpreted to have been eroded during immense southeast-oriented flood events, the first of which flowed on a topographic surface at least as high as the highest points in the present-day drainage divide area. Flood erosion across the drainage divide ended when headward erosion of the deep Missouri River valley captured all southeast-oriented flood flow.

Preface:

The following interpretation of detailed topographic map evidence is provided as evidence in the Missouri River drainage basin landform origins research project, which is compiling similar evidence for all major drainage divides contained within the Missouri River drainage basin and for all major drainage divides with and within certain adjacent drainage basins. The research project is interpreting evidence in the context of a previously unexplored geomorphology paradigm, which is briefly described in the introduction below. Project essays are listed on the sidebar category list under their appropriate Missouri River tributary drainage basin, Missouri River segment drainage basin (by state), and/or state in which the Missouri River drainage basin is located.

Introduction:

  • The purpose of this essay is to use topographic map interpretation methods to explore North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area landform origins in Musselshell County, Montana, USA. Map interpretation methods can be used to unravel many geomorphic events leading up to formation of present-day drainage routes and development of other landform features. While each detailed topographic map feature provides detailed evidence to be explained, the solution must be consistent with explanations for adjacent area map evidence as well as solutions to big picture map evidence puzzles. I invite readers to improve upon my solutions or to propose alternate solutions that better explain evidence and are also consistent with adjacent map area and big picture evidence. Readers may do so either by making comments here or by writing and publishing their own essays and then by leaving a link to those essays in a comment here.
  •  This essay is also exploring a paradigm in which erosional landforms are interpreted as evidence left by immense glacial melt water floods. Implied in that interpretation is the immense floods were derived from a thick North American ice sheet that created a deep “hole” in the North American continent and also melted fast. The previously unexplored paradigm being tested in this and similar essays is a thick North American ice sheet, comparable in thickness to the present day Antarctic ice sheet, occupied approximately the North American region usually recognized to have been glaciated and through its weight and erosive actions created a “deep” North American “hole”, through its weight and deep erosion (and perhaps deposition) along major south-oriented melt water flow routes caused significant crustal warping and tectonic change, through its action of melting fast produced immense floods that flowed across the continent, and through its action of melting fast systematically opened up space in the ice sheet created “hole” so headward erosion of newly developed north-oriented drainage systems captured immense south-oriented melt water floods and diverted immense melt water floods north into space the ice sheet had once occupied.
  • If this previously unexplored paradigm is correct the geographic region explored by this essay should contain evidence of immense floods that were captured by headward erosion of new valley systems so as to cause the floods to flow in a different direction. Ability of this previously unexplored paradigm to explain North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area landform evidence will be regarded as evidence supporting the “thick ice sheet that melted fast” paradigm.

North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area location map

Figure 1: North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area location map (select and click on maps to enlarge). National Geographic Society map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 1 provides a North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area location map and illustrates a region in Montana. The Missouri River flows southeast from the figure 1 northwest corner to Fort Peck Lake. The Musselshell River flows from the figure 1 west center (south half) edge to Harlowton, Lavina, Roundup, and Melstone and then turns north to flow to Mosby and to join the Missouri River at Fort Peck Lake. The Yellowstone River flows from Big Timber (along the figure 1 west edge near the figure 1 southwest corner) to Greycliff, Columbus, Laurel, Billings, Custer, Forsyth, Miles City, and Terry (located along the figure 1 east edge). North Willow Creek is a Musselshell River tributary originating north of Roundup and joining the Musselshell River north of Melstone. Based on evidence from hundreds of other Missouri River drainage basin landform origins research project essays published on this website landform evidence illustrated here is interpreted in the context of an immense southeast-oriented flood flowing across the figure 1 map area and which was systematically captured and diverted northeast by headward erosion of deep valleys eroded into a topographic surface at least as high as the figure 1 region highest elevations today. Prior to Musselshell River valley headward erosion (although not much before) the deep Yellowstone River valley had eroded southwest to capture southeast-oriented flood waters and to divert flood waters northeast. The Musselshell River valley was another deep valley that eroded southwest to capture southeast-oriented flood water and to divert flood flow to the northeast. Southeast-oriented tributary valleys eroded headward from the newly eroded north-oriented Musselshell River valley and the northeast-oriented North Willow Creek valley eroded southwest to behead and capture southeast-oriented flood flow routes moving flood water to the newly eroded northeast-oriented Musselshell River valley. The southeast-oriented North Willow Creek headwaters valley was eroded headward along a captured southeast-oriented flood flow route. Subsequently the Flatwillow Creek valley eroded southwest and northwest to capture southeast-oriented flood flow that had been moving to what was then the newly eroded North Willow Creek valley. and beheaded all southeast-oriented flood flow to the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area discussed here. The Missouri River-Big Dry Creek drainage divide area essay, the Musselshell River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area in Musselshell and Yellowstone Counties essay, and the Musselshell River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area in Treasure and Rosebud Counties essay describe drainage divide areas located near the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area discussed here. The Missouri River-Big Dry Creek essay can be found under Big Dry Creek on the sidebar category list and the other essays can be found under Musselshell River.

North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area detailed location map

Figure 2: North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area detailed location map. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 2 illustrates a somewhat more detailed map of the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area discussed in this essay. Musselshell County is located in Montana. The unnamed county in the figure 2 north center area is Petroleum County. The Musselshell River flows northeast from the figure 2 south edge to Roundup, Delphia, Musselshell, and Melstone, and then flows north-northwest and north-northeast along the county line to the figure 2 north edge. North Willow Creek originates just east of the Little Snowy Mountains (located in the figure 2 northwest quadrant) and flows southeast from the county line area in Musselshell County towards Roundup, but instead turns east-northeast and finally northeast to leave Musselshell County and join the Musselshell River in the Petroleum County southeast corner. Figure 2 does not show many Musselshell River or North Willow Creek tributaries in the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area and detailed maps below are needed to interpret the drainage divide history. Figure 2 does show several southeast-oriented North Willow Creek tributaries from the north, suggesting the North Willow Creek valley eroded southwest to capture multiple southeast-oriented flood flow routes such as might be found in a southeast-oriented anastomosing channel complex. Evidence for southeast-oriented flood flow across the figure 2 map region was presented in the nearby Flatwillow Creek-North Willow Creek drainage divide area essay, the Musselshell River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area in Musselshell and Yellowstone Counties essay, and the Musselshell River-Yellowstone River drainage divide area in Treasure and Rosebud Counties essay (all of which can be found under Musselshell River on the sidebar category list). Those essays document large southeast-oriented floods coming from northwest of the present day Musselshell River in the North Willow Creek-Musselshell drainage divide area discussed here. This essay begins by looking at evidence at the northeast end of the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area and proceeds southwest along the drainage divide area to the Roundup region and concludes by looking at the Flatwillow Creek-North Willow Creek drainage divide area near the North Willow Creek headwaters, located just east of the Little Snowy Mountains.

Northeast end of North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area

Figure 3: Northeast end of North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 3 illustrates the northeast end of the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area. The Musselshell River flows north-northwest in the figure 3 east half from the figure 3 southeast quadrant to the figure 3 north center edge. North Willow Creek flows northeast from the figure 3 southwest corner to the figure 3 north center edge and joins the Musselshell River just north of the figure 3 map area. Note how tributaries to the north-northwest oriented Musselshell River from the west are southeast or east-southeast oriented and tributaries to North Willow Creek from the east are northwest oriented. Also note southeast-oriented North Willow Creek tributaries and/or tributary valley segments in the area west of the North Willow Creek valley. East of the Musselshell River note northwest-oriented Musselshell River tributaries and/or northwest-oriented tributaries to west-oriented Musselshell Creek tributaries. This northwest-southeast tributary alignment is evidence the northeast-oriented North Willow Creek valley eroded headward across southeast-oriented flood flow moving to what was then the newly eroded north-northwest oriented Musselshell River valley. Northwest-oriented North Willow Creek tributary valleys were eroded by reversed flood flow on the northwest end of southeast-oriented flood flow channels. The reversed flood flow moved northwest into the newly eroded North Willow Creek valley, eroded the northwest-oriented tributary valleys, and created the present day North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide. The north-northwest-oriented Musselshell River valley alignment is probably related to reversed flood flow related to headward erosion of the deep Missouri River valley located north of the figure 3 map area. Note the presence of the Ivanhoe Dome Oil Field and the Ragged Point Oil Field, which suggests underlying geologic structures. Geologic structures can help shape surface drainage routes, but the valleys are eroded by running water.

North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area northwest of Melstone

Figure 4: North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area northwest of Melstone. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 4 illustrates the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area northwest of Melstone and south and west of the figure 3 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 3. The northeast-oriented Musselshell River is located in the figure 4 southeast corner and flows south of Melstone. The Musselshell River turns to flow north-northwest east of the figure 4 map area. The northeast-oriented Musselshell River valley segment southwest from the figure 4 map area probably eroded headward from the north-northwest oriented Musselshell River valley and the gradual turn from northeast oriented to north-northwest oriented developed because the northeast-oriented valley segment successfully captured immense quantities of southeast-oriented flood flow, which were then diverted northeast and north-northwest to the deep Missouri River valley to the north. The large volumes of flood waters moving through the region eroded the present day Musselshell River valley. North Willow Creek flows east-southeast from the figure 4 west center (north half) edge area and then turns north to flow to the figure 4 north center edge. Note southeast-oriented tributaries flowing from the present day North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide to the northeast-oriented Musselshell River and northwest-oriented tributaries flowing from the drainage divide to north- and northeast-oriented North Willow Creek. This northwest-southeast oriented tributary alignment is again evidence the deep Musselshell River valley eroded headward across multiple southeast-oriented flood flow routes and diverted the flood waters northeast and north. Subsequently the North Willow Creek valley eroded headward to capture the southeast-oriented flood flow and diverted the flood waters more directly north and northeast to the Musselshell River valley. The Musselshell River valley eroded headward first, although because the Musselshell River valley captured significant flood flow from west of the figure 4 map area (and west of the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area), captured flood waters from further west probably continued to flow northeast and north-northwest in the Musselshell River valley after headward erosion of the North Willow Creek valley had beheaded all figure 4 flood flow routes to the Musselshell River valley.

McLean Coulee-Musselshell River drainage divide area

Figure 5: McLean Coulee-Musselshell River drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 5 illustrates the McLean Coulee-Musselshell River drainage divide west and south of the figure 4 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 4. The northeast-oriented Musselshell River flows from the figure 5 south center edge and follows the highway to the figure 5 east edge. Musselshell, Montana is located just north of the figure 5 south center edge where the Musselshell River enters the figure 5 map area. Fourmile Creek is the southeast-oriented Musselshell River tributary joining the Musselshell River just north of Musselshell, Montana. North Willow Creek flows in a generally east direction across the figure 5 north edge area. McLean Coulee drains east in the figure 5 center area and then east-southeast to the Musselshell River valley. Sand Creek originates in the figure 5 west center area and flows northeast to join North Willow Creek at the west end of figure 5 northeast quadrant area. Note how the deep east-oriented McLean Creek drainage basin has eroded headward to behead multiple southeast-oriented Musselshell River tributaries. Figure 5 evidence including the presence of the Melstone Oil Field suggests an underlying geologic structure and headward erosion of the large east-oriented McLean Coulee valley was almost certainly aided by underlying bedrock geology. Headward erosion of the east-oriented McLean Creek valley captured southeast-oriented flood flow moving to what was then the newly eroded northeast-oriented Musselshell River valley. Subsequently headward erosion of the North Willow Creek-Sand Creek valley captured southeast-oriented flood flow to McLean Coulee and soon after headward erosion of the North Willow Creek valley captured flood flow to the newly eroded Sand Creek valley. Figure 6 below provides a detailed map of the McLean Coulee-Fourmile Creek drainage divide area and figure 7 below provides a detailed map of the Sand Creek headwaters area located in the figure 5 west center area. West-oriented drainage immediately west of the east- and northeast-oriented Sand Creek headwaters flows to a north-oriented North Willow Creek tributary (see figure 7 below).

McLean Coulee-Fourmile Creek drainage divide area

Figure 6: McLean Coulee-Fourmile Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 6 illustrates the McLean Coulee-Fourmile Creek drainage divide area seen in less detail in figure 5 above. East-oriented McLean Coulee is located in the figure 6 north half. Fourmile Creek flows southeast in the figure 6 south center area. Headwaters of other southeast-oriented Musselshell River tributaries are located both east and west of southeast-oriented Fourmile Creek. Higher elevations in the figure 6 south half probably reflect the presence of erosion resistant bedrock not present in the McLean Coulee valley area. Due to underlying bedrock characteristics the McLean Coulee valley was able to erode west across and capture multiple southeast-oriented flood flow routes that had been moving flood waters to what was then the newly eroded northeast-oriented Musselshell River valley. Note how north of the Fourmile Springs (located in the figure 6 south center area) is an erosional residual between Fourmile Creek and a Fourmile Creek tributary. That erosional residual suggests southeast-oriented flood flow beheaded by headward erosion of McLean Coulee valley was moving in anastomosing channels. Reversed flood flow eroded the short north and northwest-oriented McLean Coulee tributary valleys. The source of the southeast-oriented flood waters cannot be determined from evidence presented here. However, essays in this series when taken collectively as a group can be used to trace flood waters both up flood to source areas and down flood to see where flood waters were going. A logical flood water source would be rapid melting of a thick North American ice sheet located in a deep “hole” occupying approximately the North American location usually recognized to have been glaciated. The deep “hole” would have been created by deep glacial erosion and by crustal warping caused by the ice sheet weight. Such a flood water source would not only explain the immense southeast-oriented floods this essay series describes, but would also explain why deep valleys were eroding headward to capture the southeast-oriented flood waters and diverting the flood waters further and further to the northeast and north into space in the deep “hole” the rapidly melting thick ice sheet had once occupied. In addition, such a flood water source may explain uplift of the mountains regions during an immense southeast-oriented flood. A thick North American ice sheet in deep “hole” created in part due to the ice sheet’s weight would probably create crustal warping elsewhere on the continent, especially along ice sheet margins. Further, rapid erosion of overlying material might trigger localized uplifts of geologic structures such as those observed in the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area.

North Willow Creek-Sand Creek drainage divide area

Figure 7: North Willow Creek-Sand Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 7 provides a detailed map of the North Willow Creek-Sand Creek drainage divide area partially seen in less detail in figure 5 above. North Willow Creek flows southeast from the figure 7 northwest corner area to the figure 7 north center and then turns to flow northeast to the figure 7 northeast corner area. Sand Creek headwaters are located in the figure 7 south center and Sand Creek flows east to the figure 7 east edge. Immediately south of the Sand Creek headwaters, in a deeper through valley, is a west-oriented stream, which flows to a north-oriented North Willow Creek tributary located in the figure 7 west half. The through valley links the west-oriented North Willow Creek tributary valley with the east and northeast-oriented Sand Creek valley. Figure 7 evidence can be explained in the context multiple east and northeast-oriented flood flow channels, such as are typical of flood formed anastomosing channel complexes. In other words, headward erosion of the North Willow Creek valley was not headward erosion of a single valley to capture southeast-oriented flood flow, but was headward erosion of a complex of valleys to capture southeast-oriented flood flow. Figure 7 evidence demonstrates east-oriented flood waters moved east across the figure 7 south center to the Sand Creek and McLean Coulee valleys at the same time flood waters moved across the figure 7 north half in the present day North Willow Creek valley. Valleys eroded into the erosional residual located in the figure 7 center area were eroded by southeast-oriented flood flow channels prior to headward erosion of the North Willow Creek valley to the north. Eventually the North Willow Creek valley captured all the flood flow, although that capture probably occurred as headward erosion of the Flatwillow Creek valley to the north was beheading southeast-oriented flood flow routes to the present day North Willow Creek valley area.

North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area northwest of Delphia

Figure 8: North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area northwest of Delphia. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 8 illustrates the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area northwest of Delphia and includes overlap areas with figure 5 (and includes the area shown in figure 7).  The northeast oriented Musselshell River is located in the figure 8 southeast corner. Musselshell River tributaries in the figure 8 south half are predominantly southeast oriented, suggesting the Musselshell River valley eroded headward to capture multiple southeast oriented flood flow routes. The Big Wall in the figure 8 north center area appears to be a large hogback and provides further evidence of underlying geologic structures. North Willow Creek is located in the figure 8 north half and flows southeast, northeast, east, and northeast. The North Willow Creek tributary-Sand Creek through valley seen in figure 7 is located in the figure 8 northeast quadrant. Further west in the figure 8 north center area is an east-west through valley south of the Big Wall linking the north-oriented North Willow Creek tributary with a west-oriented North Willow Creek tributary. That through valley also provides evidence of east- and northeast-oriented anastomosing flood flow channels that beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow routes to what was then the newly eroded northeast-oriented Musselshell River valley. Note the southeast-oriented stream flowing to the figure 8 west center edge, which turns to flow northeast to the figure 8 center area and then turns northwest to flow to North Willow Creek. The northwest-oriented valley segment was eroded by reversed flood flow on the northwest end of a beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow route. The beheaded southeast-oriented Musselshell River tributary joins the Musselshell River just west from Delphia. The northeast-oriented valley segment eroded southwest from the newly reversed northwest-oriented valley segment to capture yet to be beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow routes further to the southwest. Present day southeast-oriented Musselshell River tributaries with headwaters located southeast of the northeast-oriented valley provide evidence the northeast-oriented valley segment did indeed capture  southeast-oriented flood flow routes. Also, the southeast-oriented valley segment eroded headward along one of the captured southeast-oriented flood flow routes. Headward erosion of North Willow Creek valley beheaded all southeast-oriented flood flow routes to that southeast-, northeast-, northwest-oriented tributary valley.

North Willow Creek-Willow Creek drainage divide area north of Roundup

Figure 9: North Willow Creek-Willow Creek drainage divide area north of Roundup. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 9 illustrates North Willow Creek-Willow Creek drainage divide area north of Roundup and west and south of the figure 8 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 8. The Musselshell River flows northeast through the figure 9 south center and southeast quadrant areas. North Willow Creek flows southeast and northeast in the figure 9 north center and northeast quadrant areas. The previously mentioned southeast, northeast, and northwest-oriented North Willow Creek tributary is located in the figure 9 center area. Willow Creek flows east-northeast from Lake Mason on the figure 9 west edge and then turns south and southeast to flow to the northeast-oriented Musselshell River. Ridges especially in the figure 9 north half are probably hogbacks suggesting the presence of eroded geologic structures. Note how a large southeast-oriented headcut began to erode headward along the present day southeast-oriented Willow Creek valley segment alignment. That large southeast-oriented headcut provides evidence large volumes of southeast-oriented flood flow once moved from northwest of the figure 9 map area to what was then the newly eroded Musselshell River valley. Headward erosion of the east- and northeast-oriented North Willow Creek valley beheaded some flood flow routes to the southeast-oriented Willow Creek valley, but the North Fork Willow Creek valley (probably aided by underlying geologic structures) eroded northwest along what must have been a major southeast-oriented flood flow route. Southeast-oriented flood waters originally moved across the entire figure 9 map area (and the entire North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area) on a topographic surface at least as high as the highest figure 9 elevations today (and the highest North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide elevations today). Headward erosion of the deep Musselshell River valley was into that high level topographic surface. Tributary valleys were eroded into that high level topographic surface. The North Fork Willow Creek valley eroded headward into that high level surface. In other words the present day figure 9 and North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area topography and drainage network evolved as flood waters eroded the figure 9 and North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide region.

Flatwillow Creek-North Willow Creek drainage divide northwest of Devils Basin

Figure 10: Flatwillow Creek-North Willow Creek drainage divide northwest of Devils Basin. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 10 illustrates the Flatwillow Creek-North Willow Creek drainage divide north and west of the figure 9 map area. Flatwillow Creek flows southeast and east from the figure 10 northwest corner to the figure 10 east edge. South of Flatwillow Creek, the eastern end of the Little Snowy Mountains can be seen along the figure 10 west edge. North Willow Creek headwaters originate northwest of Devils Basin and flow through the Devils Basin to the figure 9 map area, which is located almost directly south of the figure 10 map area. Willow Creek flows southeast across the figure 10 southwest corner. Jones Creek is a Willow Creek tributary, which originates immediately east of the Little Snowy Mountains east end. Note the northwest-southeast oriented through valley linking the present day Flatwillow Creek valley with the southeast-oriented Jones Creek headwaters. That through valley is evidence headward erosion of the Flatwillow Creek valley beheaded southeast-oriented flood flow to the Jones Creek and Willow Creek valleys. The southeast-oriented Devils Basin, while shaped by an underlying geologic structure, is also a southeast-oriented abandoned headcut eroded by southeast-oriented flood flow that was captured by headward erosion of the North Willow Creek valley and then beheaded by headward erosion of the Flatwillow Creek valley. Note the extent of the southeast-sloping erosion surface extending across the figure 10 map area. That erosion surface was eroded by southeast-oriented flood flow that originally moved to what was then the newly eroded northeast-oriented Musselshell River valley and then was captured by headward erosion of the North Willow Creek valley. Figure 10 evidence, while illustrating Flatwillow Creek-Willow Creek and Flatwillow Creek-North Willow Creek drainage divide evidence, hopefully provides an indication of the immensity of the southeast-oriented flood that eroded the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide. Flood waters that eroded the North Willow Creek-Musselshell River drainage divide area were moving southeast around a mountain barrier to the west.

Additional information and sources of maps studied

This essay has provided only a sample of the detailed topographic map evidence supporting the flood erosion interpretation. Many additional illustrations could be provided. Readers are encouraged to look at mosaics of detailed topographic maps to see the abundance of available data. Maps used in this study were created and published by the United States Geologic Survey and can be obtained directly from the United States Geological Survey and/or from dealers offering United States Geological Survey maps. Hard copy maps can also be observed at United States Geological Survey map depositories which are located throughout the United States and elsewhere. Illustrations used here were created using National Geographic Society TOPO software and digital map data. TOPO software and map data can be obtained from the National Geographic Society and/or dealers offering National Geographic Society digital map data.

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