Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area landform origins in Cloud, Ottawa, Clay, and Dickinson Counties, Kansas, USA

· Kansas, Republican River, Solomon River
Authors

Abstract:

The Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area in Cloud, Ottawa, Clay, and Dickinson Counties, Kansas was eroded by immense south-oriented floods. Flood waters were probably derived from a rapidly melting North American ice sheet and flowed across Nebraska into Kansas and at one time flowed further south. Headward erosion of the east-oriented Kansas River valley captured the south-oriented flood flow and diverted the flood waters east to what was then the newly eroded Missouri River valley. The southeast-oriented Republican River, Chapman Creek, Mud Creek, and Solomon River valleys eroded headward from the newly eroded Kansas River-Smoky Hill River valley along and across south-oriented flood flow channels. Headward erosion of Republican River tributary valleys beheaded south-oriented flood flow to the actively eroding Mud Creek and Chapman Creek valleys. Republican River valley headward erosion beheaded south-oriented flood flow channels to what were actively eroding south-oriented Solomon River tributary valleys. Evidence supporting this flood origin interpretation includes present day valley orientations and through valleys crossing present day drainage divides.

Preface:

The following interpretation of detailed topographic map evidence is provided as evidence in the Missouri River drainage basin landform origins research project, which is compiling similar evidence for all major drainage divides contained within the Missouri River drainage basin and for all major drainage divides with and within certain adjacent drainage basins. The research project is interpreting evidence in the context of a previously unexplored geomorphology paradigm, which is briefly described in the introduction below. Project essays are listed on the sidebar category list under their appropriate Missouri River tributary drainage basin, Missouri River segment drainage basin (by state), and/or state in which the Missouri River drainage basin is located. 

Introduction:

  • The purpose of this essay is to use topographic map interpretation methods to explore Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area landform origins in Cloud, Ottawa, Clay, and Dickinson Counties, Kansas, USA. Map interpretation methods can be used to unravel many geomorphic events leading up to formation of present-day drainage routes and development of other landform features. While each detailed topographic map feature provides detailed evidence to be explained, the solution must be consistent with explanations for adjacent area map evidence as well as solutions to big picture map evidence puzzles. I invite readers to improve upon my solutions and/or to propose alternate solutions that better explain evidence and are also consistent with adjacent map area and big picture evidence. Readers may do so either by making comments here or by writing and publishing their own essays and then by leaving a link to those essays in a comment here.
  • This essay is also exploring a new geomorphology paradigm in which erosional landforms are interpreted as evidence left by immense glacial melt water floods. Implied in that interpretation is the immense floods were derived from a thick North American ice sheet that created a deep “hole” in the North American continent and also melted fast. The previously unexplored paradigm being tested in this and other Missouri River drainage basin landform origins research project essays is a thick North American ice sheet, comparable in thickness to the Antarctic ice sheet, occupied the North American region usually recognized to have been glaciated, and through its weight and erosive actions created a deep North American “hole”. The southwestern rim of that deep “hole” is today preserved in the high Rocky Mountains. The ice sheet through its weight and deep erosion (and perhaps deposition along major south-oriented melt water flow routes) caused significant crustal warping and tectonic change, through its action of melting fast produced immense floods that flowed across the continent, and through its action of melting fast systematically opened up space in the ice sheet created “hole” so headward erosion of newly developed north-oriented drainage systems captured immense south-oriented melt water floods and diverted the floods north into space the ice sheet had once occupied.
  • If this previously unexplored paradigm is correct the geographic region explored by this essay should contain evidence of immense floods that were captured by headward erosion of new valley systems so as to cause the floods to flow in a different direction. Ability of this previously unexplored paradigm to explain Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area landform origins in Cloud, Ottawa, Clay, and Dickinson Counties, Kansas will be regarded as evidence supporting the “thick ice sheet that melted fast” paradigm.

Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area location map

Figure 1: Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area location map (select and click on maps to enlarge). National Geographic Society map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software.

Figure 1 provides a location map for the Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area in Cloud, Ottawa, Clay, and Dickinson Counties, Kansas. Figure 1 illustrates a region in north central Kansas with a thin strip of southern Nebraska along the north margin. The Republican River flows from the figure 1 northwest corner to Red Cloud, Guide Rock, and Superior, Nebraska and then turns to flow in a south-southeast direction to Republic, Scandia, Norway, and Concordia, Kansas. At Concordia the Republican River turns to flow in an east direction to Clyde and Clifton before turning to flow in a south-southeast direction to Clay Center and then to form the east-northeast and east-southeast oriented Kansas River near Junction City. The Kansas River is formed near Salina, Kansas at the confluence of the Smoky Hill River and the southeast-oriented Solomon River and flows in an east-northeast direction to Junction City. East of the figure 1 map area the Kansas River flows in an east direction to join the Missouri River at Kansas City, Missouri. The Solomon River flows in a southeast direction from the figure 1 west edge (north half) to Gaylord, Beloit, and Minneapolis before joining the Smoky Hill River near Solomon, Kansas. The Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area in Cloud, Ottawa, Clay, and Dickinson Counties, Kansas is generally located east of north-south highway 81, which extends from Concordia to Minneapolis, Kansas in the Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area. The Nebraska and Kansas Big Blue River drainage basin is located east and north of the Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area discussed here and essays related to Big Blue River drainage divide areas can be found under Big Blue River on the sidebar category list. Hundreds of Missouri River drainage basin landform origins research project essays (published on this website) collectively present significant evidence for massive south-oriented floods, which flowed across Nebraska and into Kansas. Flood waters were probably derived from a rapidly melting thick North American ice sheet. The Kansas River valley eroded headward into the figure 1 map area to capture the south-oriented flood flow. The Republican and Solomon River valleys eroded headward from what was then the newly eroded Kansas River valley to capture flood waters and to divert flood flow more efficiently to the newly eroded Kansas River valley.

Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area detailed location map

Figure 2: Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area detailed location map. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 2 provides a more detailed location map for the Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide area in Cloud, Ottawa, Clay, and Dickinson Counties, Kansas. Cloud, Ottawa, Clay, Dickinson, Riley, and Geary are Kansas counties and county boundaries are shown. Concordia is the major town located in Cloud County and Clay Center is the major town located in Clay County. The Republican River flows in a south-southeast direction to Concordia and then in east direction to Clyde and Clifton before turning to flow in a south-southeast direction to Clay Center and to join the east-northeast oriented Kansas River near Junction City (in Geary County). The Big Blue River is the south-southeast, south-southwest, and south-southeast oriented river flowing along the Riley County east border and joining the Kansas River near Manhattan in eastern Riley County. The Solomon River flows from Mitchell County in a southeast direction to the Cloud County southwest corner and then in a south-southeast direction to Minneapolis, the major town located in Ottawa County. From Minneapolis the Solomon River flows in a southeast direction to join the Smoky Hill River near Solomon in the Saline County northeast corner. The Smoky Hill River and Solomon River combine to form the east-northeast oriented Kansas River, which flows across Dickinson County into Geary County and then further east. Between the Solomon River and Republican River there are two named southeast-oriented Kansas River tributaries. The first is south-southeast oriented Mud Creek, which originates near Manchester in northwest Dickinson County and which joins the Kansas River south of Abilene and the second is southeast-oriented Chapman Creek, which originates in southeast Cloud County and northeast Ottawa County and which joins the Kansas River near Chapman in eastern Dickinson County. Topographic maps below illustrate northeast-oriented Mulberry Creek, which originates in eastern Cloud County and which flows to join the Republican River south of Clifton in northwest Clay County. Maps below also illustrate the drainage divide between north-oriented Republican River tributaries in Cloud County with the south-oriented West and Middle Pipe Creeks, which flow to south-southwest oriented Pipe Creek which joins the Solomon River near Minneapolis in Ottawa County. Figure 2 drainage routes were established during an immense south-oriented flood, which flowed across the entire figure 2 map area. The Kansas River valley eroded headward across the figure 2 map area to capture south-oriented flood flow and to divert flood waters east to what was then the newly eroded Missouri River valley. The Republican River, Chapman Creek, Mud Creek, and Solomon River valleys and their tributary valleys eroded headward from the newly eroded Kansas River valley to move captured flood waters more efficiently to the newly eroded Kansas River valley. Headward erosion of the Republican River valley and tributary valleys beheaded south-oriented flood flow routes to actively eroding Mud Creek and Chapman Creek valleys and the south-oriented Solomon River tributary valleys. Flood waters on north ends of beheaded flood flow routes reversed flow direction to flow north and to erode north-oriented Republican River tributary valleys.

Wolf Creek-Pipe Creek drainage divide area north

Figure 3: Wolf Creek-Pipe Creek drainage divide area north. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 3 illustrates the north side of the Wolf Creek-Pipe Creek drainage divide area south of Concordia, Kansas. Figure 4 below better illustrates the drainage divide and also better illustrates south-oriented Pipe Creek tributary valleys. Concordia is the town located in the figure 3 northwest quadrant. Aurora is the much smaller town located in the figure 3 southeast quadrant. The Republican River is the east-oriented river meandering back and forth across the figure 3 north edge. The north oriented Republican River tributary west of Concordia is Wolf Creek. Note how Wolf Creek headwaters are north-northwest oriented and how Wolf Creek has northwest and west oriented tributaries. From the east the West Branch Wolf Creek flows in a northeast and east direction to Wolf Creek and south of the West Branch is northeast oriented Coal Creek, which joins Wolf Creek in the figure 3 west center area. The north-oriented Republican River tributary immediately east of Concordia is Oak Creek, with the East Branch flowing straight north while the West Branch flows north and east-northeast to join the East Branch. Plum Creek is the shorter named north-oriented Republican River tributary in the figure 3 north center area. Ames is the very small town in the figure 3 northeast corner. Elm Creek is the north oriented Republican River tributary just east from Ames. The East Branch Elm Creek flows in a north-northeast direction while the West Branch Elm Creek flows in a northeast direction to join north- and northeast-oriented Elm Creek, which after joining the East Branch Elm Creek flows in a north direction to join the Republican River. South-oriented drainage seen along the figure 3 south margin flows to south-oriented Pipe Creek tributaries, with Pipe Creek flowing to the Solomon River. A close look at the figure 3 south margin reveals north-south through valleys linking headwaters of the north-oriented Republican River tributaries with south-oriented Pipe Creek tributaries. Figure 5 below provides a detailed map to better illustrate the north-south oriented through valleys. The through valleys provide an important clue as to the origin of the north-oriented Republican tributary valleys. The north-oriented Republican River tributary valleys originated as south-oriented flood flow channels, which were moving immense quantities of flood water across the figure 3 map area to what was then the actively eroding Pipe Creek valley system. Headward erosion of the east-oriented Republican River valley along the figure 3 north margin then beheaded the south-oriented flood flow channels, one channel at a time from east to west. Flood waters on north ends of beheaded flood flow channels reversed flow direction to flow north to the newly eroded Republican River valley. Because flood flow channels were anastomosing (or interconnected) reversed flow on a newly beheaded channel could capture yet to beheaded flood flow from channels further west. Such captures of yet to be beheaded flood flow provided the water required to erode north oriented Republican River tributary valleys.

Wolf Creek-Pipe Creek drainage divide area south

Figure 4: Wolf Creek-Pipe Creek drainage divide area south. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 4 illustrates the Wolf Creek-Pipe Creek drainage divide area south of the figure 3 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 3. Aurora is the small town located near the figure 4 north edge (east half). Miltonvale is the town without a name along the figure 4 east edge. The southeast-oriented river just barely seen in the figure 4 southwest corner is the Solomon River. Mortimer Creek is south-oriented stream flowing from LYON township to the Solomon River. West Pipe Creek is the south-southeast oriented stream flowing from MEREDITH township in the figure 4 center to the figure 4 south center edge. Middle Pipe Creek is the south-oriented stream just east of the word OAKLAND and East Pipe Creek is the south-southwest oriented stream flowing through the words OAKLAND. West, Middle, and East Pipe Creek join south of the figure 4 map area to form south-southwest oriented Pipe Creek, which flows to the Solomon River. Along the figure 4 north edge are headwaters of north-oriented Republican River tributaries. Wolf Creek headwaters are located west of CENTER township. A close look at the Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide reveals numerous north-south oriented through valleys linking the north-oriented Republican River tributary valleys with the south-oriented Solomon River tributary valleys. The drainage history described by figure 4 map evidence begins with massive south-oriented flood flow moving across the figure 4 map area on a topographic surface at least as high as the highest figure 4 elevations today. Flood waters may have deeply eroded the figure 4 map area prior to the time flood waters flowed on the topographic surface defined by present day figure 4 high elevations, but there is no evidence left above the modern-day figure 4 high elevations. South-oriented flood flow was moving to what was then the newly eroded southeast-oriented Solomon River valley and the actively eroding south-oriented tributary valleys eroding headward from that valley. Headward erosion of the east-oriented Republican River valley to the north of figure 4 beheaded the south-oriented flood flow channels. As already mentioned flood waters on north ends of beheaded flood flow channels reversed flow direction to flow north to the newly eroded Republican River valley. The reversal of flood flow was responsible for eroding the north-oriented Republican River tributary valleys and also for creating the Republican River-Solomon River drainage divide.

Detailed map of Elm Creek-Middle Pipe Creek drainage divide area

Figure 5Detailed map of Elm Creek-Middle Pipe Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 5 provides a detailed map of the Elm Creek-Middle Pipe Creek drainage divide area near Aurora, which was seen in less detail in figures 3 and 4 above. Elm Creek originates in section 19 and flows north along the section 19 east edge and then along the section 17-18 boundary to the figure 5 north edge. Other figure 5 north-oriented drainage routes are tributaries to north-oriented Elm Creek. Middle Pipe Creek is the south-oriented stream in the figure 5 southwest corner area. Other figure 5 south-oriented drainage flows to Middle Pipe Creek. Note the north-south oriented through valleys linking the north-oriented Elm Creek tributary valleys with the south-oriented Middle Pipe Creek tributary valleys. Proceeding from the west to the east along the Elm Creek-Middle Pipe Creek drainage divide there are through valleys in sections 24, 19, 20, 21, and 27. Additional through valleys are located east of the figure 5 map area. The through valleys provide evidence of a south-oriented anastomosing channel complex that once moved large volumes of flood water south to what were then actively Middle Pipe Creek tributary valleys. Flood waters were eroding the Middle Pipe Creek valley and tributary valleys headward from the Pipe Creek valley, which had eroded headward from the newly eroded Solomon River valley. At that time the Republican River valley north of the figure 5 map area did not exist, nor did any of the present day valleys north of the figure 5 map area (i.e. the Missouri River valley and all of its tributary valleys north and west of the figure 5 map area had not yet been eroded). Headward erosion of the Republican River valley next beheaded the south-oriented flood flow channels to what were then actively eroding Middle Pipe Creek valley and tributary valleys. Flood waters on north ends of beheaded flood flow channels reversed flow direction to erode the north-oriented Elm Creek and Elm Creek tributary valleys and to create the Elm Creek-Middle Pipe Creek drainage divide.

Mulberry Creek-Chapman Creek drainage divide area

Figure 6: Mulberry Creek-Chapman Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 6 illustrates the Mulberry Creek-Chapman Creek drainage divide area east of the figure 4 map area and includes overlap areas with figure 4. Aurora is the town located in the figure 6 northwest corner. Miltonvale is the somewhat larger town located west of the figure 6 south center area. Chapman Creek is the southeast oriented stream originating near Miltonvale and flowing to the figure 6 south center edge. South of figure 6 Chapman Creek flows in a southeast direction to join the east-oriented Kansas River. The south-southeast oriented river in the figure 6 northeast corner is the Republican River. Mulberry Creek is the stream flowing from the COLFAX township area in the figure 6 north center area to the figure 6 north edge and which joins the Republican River north of the figure 6 map area. Note how Mulberry Creek flows in a north-northeast, southeast, north-northeast, east, northeast, southeast, and northeast direction. Also note southeast and south oriented Mulberry Creek tributaries from the north and north-oriented Mulberry Creek tributaries from the south. Note also how the north-oriented tributaries from the south are linked by through valleys to drainage routes further to the south. For example, north of Miltonvale a through valley links north-oriented Mulberry Creek headwaters with southeast-oriented Chapman Creek headwaters. Figure 7 below provides a detailed map to better illustrate that through valley area. Also note in BLOOM township in the figure 6 northeast quadrant a northwest-southeast oriented through valley linking a southeast-oriented Mulberry Creek valley segment with a southeast-oriented stream (North Branch Five Creek) which flows to the figure 6 east center edge. Five Creek is the east-oriented Republican River tributary in the north half of the figure 6 southeast quadrant and joins the North Branch east of the figure 6 map area. Figure 8 below provides a detailed map of the Mulberry Creek-North Branch Five Creek drainage divide to better illustrate the through valleys there. These and other through valleys visible in the figure 6 map area provide evidence of south-oriented flood flow channels, which once crossed the figure 6 map area. At that time flood waters were flowing on a topographic surface as high as the highest figure 6 elevations today and headward erosion of the Republican River valley and its tributary valleys had not reached the figure 6 map area. Figure 6 valleys were eroded in sequence from the southeast to the northwest as the Republican River valley and tributary valleys eroded headward into the region.

Detailed map of Mulberry Creek-Chapman Creek drainage divide area

Figure 7: Detailed map of Mulberry Creek-Chapman Creek drainage divide areaUnited States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 7 provides a detailed map of the Mulberry Creek-Chapman Creek drainage divide area seen in less detail in figure 6 above. Mulberry Creek flows in a northeast direction from the figure 7 west center edge area to the figure 7 north edge. The north-oriented stream originating in section 5 and with a northeast-oriented tributary, which originates in section 6, is a Mulberry Creek tributary. Chapman Creek originates in section 6 and flows in a southeast direction to the figure 7 south center edge.  South-oriented drainage originating in sections 5, 4, and 3 flows to Chapman Creek. Note the well-developed through valley in section 6 linking the northeast-oriented Mulberry Creek headwaters with the southeast-oriented Chapman Creek headwaters. The through valley was eroded by south-oriented flood flow moving to what was then the actively eroding Chapman Creek valley, which had eroded headward from the newly eroded Kansas River valley. Headward erosion of the northeast-oriented Mulberry Creek valley from what was then the newly eroded Republican River valley beheaded the south-oriented flood flow channel supplying water to the actively eroding Chapman Creek valley and diverted the flood water to the northeast. Headward erosion of the Republican River valley soon after beheaded all flood flow channels to the figure 7 map area. A close look at figure 7 reveals many other higher level through valleys linking the north-oriented drainage routes with the south-oriented drainage routes. These higher level through valleys provide evidence of the magnitude of flood erosion that took place. Initially flood waters flowed across the figure 7 map area on a topographic surface at least as high as the highest figure 7 elevations today. Headward erosion of present day valleys to capture the immense south-oriented flood flow was responsible for deeply eroding the entire figure 7 map area. It is possible flood waters removed significant amounts of material before reaching the topographic level of the present day figure 7 highest elevations. It is also possible flood waters also deposited sediments in the figure 7 map area, although if so those sediments would have subsequently been deeply eroded, along with the remainder of the figure 7 landscape.

Detailed map of Mulberry Creek-North Branch Five Creek drainage divide area

Figure 8: Detailed map of Mulberry Creek-North Branch Five Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 8 provides a detailed map of the Mulberry Creek-North Branch Five Creek drainage divide area seen in less detail in figure 6 above. In the figure 8 northwest quadrant Mulberry Creek flows in a southeast direction at the figure 8 west edge and then quickly turns to flow in a northeast direction to the figure 8 north edge. The North Branch Five Creek flows in a southeast direction from section 15 to the figure 8 south edge at the west end of section 24. Note the south-oriented North Branch Five Creek tributary originating in section 11 and how it is linked by two different north-south oriented through valleys with north-oriented Mulberry Creek tributaries. The southeast-oriented stream originating in section 12 and flowing into section 13 and 18 along the figure 8 east edge flows to the south-southeast oriented Republican River, which is located a short distance east of the figure 8 map area. Note how that southeast-oriented stream is also linked by a through valley with a north-oriented Mulberry Creek tributary valley and also how a north-northeast oriented tributary to that stream is linked by a through valley with a south-southwest oriented North Branch Five Creek tributary valley. The largest and deepest through valley is located in section 15 and is a northwest-southeast oriented through valley centered in section 15. Note elevations rise on either side of that northwest-southeast oriented valley. These through valleys and others provide evidence of a south-oriented anastomosing channel complex that crossed the figure 8 map area prior to headward erosion of the deep Republican River valley and its tributary valleys. Flood waters initially flowed across a topographic surface at least as high as the highest figure 8 elevations today. The first deep valley to erode headward into the figure 8 map area was the North Branch Five Creek valley, which had eroded headward from the newly eroded Five Creek valley, which had eroded west from the newly Republican River valley. Next headward erosion of the southeast-oriented Republican River tributary in sections 13 and 18 reached into the figure 8 map area. Finally headward erosion of the northeast-oriented Mulberry Creek valley beheaded all south-oriented flood flow channels to what were then the actively eroding southeast-oriented Republican River tributary valley and the actively eroding North Branch Five Creek valley. Reversals of flood flow on north ends of beheaded flood flow channels eroded the north-oriented Mulberry Creek tributary valleys and created the Mulberry Creek-North Branch Five Creek drainage divide.

West Chapman Creek-Coal Creek drainage divide area

Figure 9: West Chapman Creek-Coal Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 9 illustrates the West Chapman Creek-Coal Creek drainage divide area located south of the figure 6 map area and there is a gap between figure 9 and figure 6. Chapman Creek flows in a southeast direction across the figure 9 northeast corner. West Chapman Creek is the east-southeast and northeast oriented stream flowing from the figure 9 north center edge area to join Chapman Creek. Longford is the town located south of West Chapman Creek in the figure 9 northeast quadrant. South of Longford is southeast, north, east, north, and northeast oriented Badger Creek, which joins Chapman Creek along the figure 9 east edge. Chapman Creek east and south of the figure 9 map area flows in a southeast direction to join the east-oriented Kansas River. Figure 10 below provides a detailed map of the West Chapman Creek-Badger Creek drainage divide area. The town located in the figure 9 southeast quadrant is Manchester. The southeast-oriented stream at Manchester is Mud Creek, which south of the figure 9 map area flows in a south-southeast direction to join the east-oriented Kansas River at Abilene. Note north-south oriented through valleys linking the Badger Creek valley with the Mud Creek valley (the railroad between Longford and Manchester is located in one such through valley). The south-oriented stream originating near DURHAM township is Coal Creek, which south of the figure 9 map area flows to the southeast-oriented Solomon River. Study of the figure 9 map area reveals through valleys linking the east-southeast oriented West Chapman Creek valley with the south-oriented Coal Creek valley. Note remnants of a higher level erosion surface into which these fairly broad through valleys have been eroded. The breadth of these through valleys suggests south-oriented flood waters literally stripped the figure 9 surface as flood waters moved to what was then the newly eroded and deep southeast-oriented Solomon River valley. Headward erosion of the Chapman Creek and West Chapman Creek valleys captured the south-oriented flood flow and diverted the flood waters in a southeast direction to what was then the newly eroded Kansas River valley. Figure 9 evidence suggests flood waters deeply eroded the figure 9 map area, although figure 9 evidence is not adequate to say for sure how deep the erosion was.

Detailed map of West Chapman Creek-Badger Creek drainage divide area

Figure 10: Detailed map of West Chapman Creek-Badger Creek drainage divide area. United States Geological Survey map digitally presented using National Geographic Society TOPO software. 

Figure 10 provides a detailed map of the West Chapman Creek-Badger Creek drainage divide area near Longford, which was seen in less detail in figure 9 above. West Chapman Creek is the east-oriented stream located near the figure 10 north margin. Badger Creek is the southeast, north, and east oriented stream located near the figure 10 south margin. Note how there are numerous north-south oriented through valleys linking the West Chapman Creek valley with the Badger Creek valley. The north-south oriented railroad line at Longford is located in one of the through valleys. Another through valley links a south-oriented Badger Creek tributary valley located immediately east of Longford with a north-oriented West Chapman Creek tributary valley. A north-northeast oriented valley in section 17 west of Longford is linked by a through valley with a south-southwest oriented valley in section 19. Several through alleys can be seen in section 20. In fact, close study of the figure 10 map area reveals numerous such through valleys, all providing evidence of south-oriented flood flow channels, which once moved flood waters to what was once the newly eroded Badger Creek valley prior to headward erosion of the West Chapman Creek valley. Probably the West Chapman Creek valley was eroded at approximately the same time as the Badger Creek valley, although the Badger Creek valley eroded headward slightly in advance of the West Chapman Creek valley. Headward erosion of the West Chapman Creek valley beheaded the south-oriented flood flow channels to the newly eroded Badger Creek valley one channel at a time (from east to west). Flood waters on north ends of beheaded flood flow channels reversed flow direction to erode north-oriented West Chapman Creek tributary valleys and to create the present day West Chapman Creek-Badger Creek drainage divide.

Additional information and sources of maps

This essay has only provided a sample of the drainage divide evidence supporting the “thick ice sheet that melted fast” geomorphology paradigm. Many additional examples could be provided, especially by using more detailed topographic maps. Readers are encouraged to look at mosaics of detailed topographic maps to see the abundance of supporting data. Maps used in this study were created by the United States Geological Survey and can be purchased in hard copy from the United States Geological Survey or from dealers offering United States Geological Survey maps. Hard copy maps can also be observed at United States Geological Survey map depositories located in major research libraries and elsewhere throughout the United States and in other countries. Illustrations used in this essay were created using National Geographic Society TOPO software and digital data. National Geographic Society digital maps can be purchased from the National Geographic Society or from dealers offering National Geographic Society digital maps.

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